Learn Dynamics with Fundamentals of Applied Dynamics: A Modern and Historical Approach by James H. Williams Jr.
- Why is it important and relevant for engineering students and professionals? - What are the main features and benefits of the book? H2: History of Mechanics - How did the field of mechanics evolve from ancient times to modern days? - Who are some of the influential figures and pioneers in the history of mechanics? - How does the book relate the historical context to the modern applications of mechanics? H2: Design, Modeling and Formulation of Equations of Motion - What are the basic concepts and principles of design, modeling and formulation of equations of motion? - How does the book introduce and explain these concepts and principles with examples and exercises? - What are some of the challenges and limitations of design, modeling and formulation of equations of motion? H2: Kinematics - What is kinematics and why is it important for studying dynamics? - How does the book cover the topics of two-dimensional and three-dimensional kinematics? - What are some of the applications and problems of kinematics in engineering? H2: Momentum Formulation for Systems of Particles - What is momentum and how is it conserved in systems of particles? - How does the book present the direct approach or vectorial mechanics for analyzing systems of particles? - What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using momentum formulation for systems of particles? H2: Variational Formulation for Systems of Particles - What is variational formulation and how is it different from momentum formulation? - How does the book introduce and apply the indirect approach or lagrangian dynamics for systems of particles? - What are some of the benefits and drawbacks of using variational formulation for systems of particles? H2: Dynamics of Systems Containing Rigid Bodies - What are rigid bodies and how are they modeled in dynamics? - How does the book extend the momentum and lagrangian formulations to systems containing rigid bodies? - What are some of the complexities and challenges of dealing with rigid bodies in dynamics? H2: Dynamics of Electrical and Electromechanical Systems - What are electrical and electromechanical systems and how are they related to dynamics? - How does the book cover the topics of lumped-parameter electrical and electromagnetic devices? - What are some of the examples and applications of electrical and electromechanical systems in engineering? H2: Vibration of Linear Lumped-Parameter Systems - What is vibration and why is it important for studying dynamics? - How does the book cover both free and forced vibration of linear lumped-parameter systems? - What are some of the methods and techniques for analyzing vibration problems in engineering? H2: Equations of Motion for One-Dimensional Continuum Models - What are continuum models and how are they different from lumped-parameter models? - How does the book derive and solve equations of motion for one-dimensional continuum models such as strings, rods, beams, membranes, plates, etc.? - What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using continuum models in dynamics? H1: Conclusion - Summarize the main points and takeaways from the book. - Highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the book. - Provide some recommendations and suggestions for further reading or learning. Table 2: Article with HTML formatting Introduction
Fundamentals of Applied Dynamics is an introductory engineering textbook by James H. Williams Jr., an award-winning MIT professor who has taught dynamics for over four decades. The book covers the history of dynamics and the dynamical analyses of mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical systems. It aims to provide a comprehensive and rigorous foundation for future learning in engineering mechanics.
The book is suitable for undergraduate students who have completed courses in calculus, linear algebra, differential equations, physics, and statics. It is also useful for graduate students and professionals who want to refresh or deepen their knowledge of dynamics. The book assumes some familiarity with basic concepts and principles of mechanics, but reviews them as needed throughout the text.
The book offers a distinctive blend of the modern and the historical, seeking to encourage an appreciation for the history of dynamics while also presenting a framework for modern applications. The book integrates topics from other disciplines, including design and the humanities, to show the relevance and importance of dynamics in engineering and society. The book features:
A historical overview of mechanics, from ancient times to modern days, highlighting the contributions of influential figures and pioneers in the field.
A unified approach to engineering mechanics, emphasizing dynamics but also incorporating statics, kinematics, and design.
A balance between the direct approach (also known as vectorial mechanics or the momentum approach) and the indirect approach (also known as lagrangian dynamics or variational dynamics), showing the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
An extension of the momentum and lagrangian formulations to systems containing rigid bodies, which are often encountered in engineering practice.
A coverage of both lumped-parameter electrical and electromagnetic devices, which are essential for understanding electromechanical systems.
A coverage of both lagrangian dynamics and vibration analysis, which are often treated separately in other textbooks.
A large number of examples and problems, ranging from elementary to advanced, covering various topics and applications in engineering.
A summary table, often in the form of a flowchart, at the end of each chapter, highlighting the main concepts and principles covered.
Several appendixes, providing theoretical and mathematical support for the main text.
History of Mechanics
The history of mechanics is a fascinating and rich subject that traces the development of human knowledge and understanding of the natural world. Mechanics is one of the oldest branches of science and engineering, dating back to ancient civilizations such as Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, Greece, and Rome. Mechanics has been influenced by various fields and disciplines, such as mathematics, physics, astronomy, philosophy, religion, art, literature, and culture. Mechanics has also influenced many aspects of human life and society, such as warfare, transportation, communication, exploration, invention, industry, and education.
The book begins with a history of mechanics that covers four major periods: antiquity (before 500 AD), middle ages (500-1500 AD), renaissance (1500-1700 AD), and enlightenment (1700-1900 AD). Each period is characterized by some key events, discoveries, inventions, challenges, and achievements that shaped the field of mechanics. The book also introduces some of the influential figures and pioneers in the history of mechanics, such as:
Aristotle (384-322 BC), who was one of the first philosophers to propose a systematic theory of natural motion based on four causes: material, formal, efficient, and final.
Archimedes (287-212 BC), who was one of the greatest mathematicians and engineers of antiquity. He discovered many principles and laws of statics and hydrostatics, such as the law of buoyancy and the principle of levers. He also invented many devices and machines for practical purposes, such as the screw pump and the claw of Archimedes.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), who was one of the founders of modern science. He challenged the Aristotelian view of motion with his experiments on falling bodies and projectiles. He also developed the concept of inertia and the law of free fall. He made many contributions to astronomy with his telescope observations.
Isaac Newton (1642-1727), who was one of the greatest scientists and mathematicians of all time. He formulated the three laws of motion and the universal law of gravitation. He also developed calculus as a tool for solving dynamical problems. He unified terrestrial and celestial mechanics in his masterpiece Principia Mathematica.
Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), who was one of the most prolific mathematicians in history. He made many contributions to various fields of mathematics, such as analysis, algebra, number theory, geometry, topology, combinatorics, logic, etc. He also applied mathematics to various fields of physics and engineering, such as mechanics, fluid dynamics, acoustics,optics,astronomy,music,theory, etc.He developedthe Euler-Lagrange equation, which is a general formofthe equationofmotion for any systemofparticles or rigid bodies.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813), who was one ofthe leading mathematiciansand physicists ofthe 18th century.He refinedand generalized the Euler-Lagrange equationto include constraints Design, Modeling and Formulation of Equations of Motion
Design, modeling and formulation of equations of motion are essential steps for analyzing and solving dynamical problems in engineering. Design is the process of creating or selecting a system or device that meets certain requirements or specifications. Modeling is the process of representing a system or device with mathematical equations or diagrams that capture its essential features and behavior. Formulation of equations of motion is the process of deriving the mathematical expressions that describe the motion of a system or device under given conditions.
The book introduces and explains these concepts and principles with examples and exercises that illustrate the various aspects and challenges of design, modeling and formulation of equations of motion. The book covers topics such as:
The concept of a design model, which is a simplified representation of a system or device that focuses on the relevant aspects for a particular analysis or purpose.
The concept of degrees of freedom, which is the number of independent variables that define the configuration or state of a system or device.
The concept of constraints, which are restrictions or limitations on the motion or configuration of a system or device.
The concept of generalized coordinates, which are a set of independent variables that uniquely define the configuration or state of a system or device.
The concept of virtual work, which is the work done by a force on a system or device when it undergoes an infinitesimal displacement that is consistent with its constraints.
The principle of virtual work, which states that the virtual work done by all the forces acting on a system or device in equilibrium is zero for any virtual displacement.
The principle of d'Alembert, which states that the virtual work done by all the forces acting on a system or device in motion is equal to the virtual work done by the inertial forces.
The principle of Hamilton, which states that the difference between the kinetic and potential energies of a system or device in motion is equal to the virtual work done by the non-conservative forces.
Kinematics is the study of motion without regard to its causes or effects. Kinematics describes how a system or device moves in terms of its position, velocity, acceleration, orientation, angular velocity, angular acceleration, etc. Kinematics is important for studying dynamics because it provides the necessary information to formulate and solve equations of motion.
The book covers the topics of two-dimensional and three-dimensional kinematics in detail. The book explains how to use various coordinate systems, such as Cartesian, polar, cylindrical, spherical, etc., to describe the motion of a system or device. The book also shows how to use vector algebra and calculus to perform kinematic analysis. The book covers topics such as:
The concept of position vector, which is a vector that locates a point relative to a reference frame.
The concept of displacement vector, which is a vector that represents the change in position of a point during a time interval.
The concept of velocity vector, which is a vector that represents the rate of change of position of a point with respect to time.
The concept of acceleration vector, which is a vector that represents the rate of change of velocity ofa point with respect to time.
The conceptofrelative motion, which isthe motionofa point with respectto another point or reference frame.
The conceptofrotation matrix, which isa matrixthat transforms the coordinatesofa point from one reference frameto another when there isa rotationbetween them.
The conceptofEuler angles, which areasetofthree angles that specifythe orientationofa rigid body or reference framein terms ofthree successive rotationsabout fixed axes.
The conceptofangular velocity vector, which isa vectorthat represents the rateofchangeoforientationofa rigid body or reference framewith respectto time.
The conceptofangular acceleration vector, which isa vectorthat represents the rateofchangeofangular velocity ofa rigid bodyor reference framewith respectto time.
Momentum Formulation for Systems of Particles
Momentum formulation for systems of particles is one ofthe methodsfor analyzingand solving dynamical problemsin engineering.Momentum formulationuses the conceptofmomentum, which isthe productofmassand velocity ofa particleor asystemofparticles.Momentum formulationrelieson the principleofconservationofmomentum, which statesthat themomentumofa systemofparticlesis conserved if there areno external forcesactingon the system.
The book presents the direct approach or vectorial mechanics for analyzing systems of particles. The direct approach uses vector algebra and calculus to derive and solve equations of motion for systems of particles. The direct approach is advantageous because it is simple, intuitive, and general. However, it also has some disadvantages, such as requiring a large number of equations and variables, and being difficult to apply to complex systems or systems with constraints.
The book covers topics such as:
The concept of linear momentum, which is the momentum of a particle or a system of particles in a straight line.
The concept of angular momentum, which is the momentum of a particle or a system of particles about a point or an axis.
The concept of center of mass, which is the point where the total mass of a system of particles is concentrated.
The concept of center of gravity, which is the point where the total weight of a system of particles is concentrated.
The concept of impulse, which is the change in momentum of a particle or a system of particles due to a force or an impact.
The concept of impact, which is a collision between two or more particles or bodies that lasts for a very short time.
The concept of coefficient of restitution, which is a measure of the elasticity or inelasticity of an impact.
The concept of work, which is the product of force and displacement along the direction of force.
The concept of kinetic energy, which is the energy associated with the motion of a particle or a system of particles.
The concept of potential energy, which is the energy associated with the position or configuration ofa particleor asystemofparticles.
The principleofworkand energy, which statesthat the changein kinetic energy ofa particleor asystemofparticlesis equalto the workdoneby allthe forcesactingon it.
The principleofpower, which statesthat the rateofchangeofkinetic energy ofa particleor asystemofparticlesis equalto the powerdeliveredby allthe forcesactingon it.
Variational Formulation for Systems of Particles
Variational formulation for systems of particles is another method for analyzing and solving dynamical problems in engineering. Variational formulation uses the concept of variational principle, which is a statement that relates the motion or configuration of a system to an extremum (minimum or maximum) of a certain quantity. Variational formulation relies on the principle of least action, which states that the motion or configuration of a system minimizes (or maximizes) its action, which is a function of its position and velocity.
The book introduces and applies the indirect approach or lagrangian dynamics for systems ofparticles.The indirect approachuses calculusofvariations to deriveandsolve equationsofmotionfor systemsofparticles.The indirect approachis advantageousbecause it reduces the numberofequationsand variables,and simplifies the treatmentofconstraintsand non-conservative forces.However,it also hassome disadvantages,such as requiring the knowledgeofpotential energy,and being less intuitiveand physical thanthe direct approach.
The book covers topics such as:
The conceptoflagrangian function, which isa functionthat representsthe differencebetween the kineticand potential energies ofa particleor asystemofparticles.
The conceptofaction, which isa functionthat representsthe integral ofthe lagrangian functionovera timeinterval.
The conceptofstationary point, which isa pointwherea functionhas zero derivativeor slope.
The conceptofextremum, which isa pointwherea functionhas eitheraminimumor amaximumvalue.
The Euler-Lagrange equation, which isa generalequationofmotionfor anysystemofparticlesor rigid bodies.It isa differential equationthat relates the lagrangian functionto the positionand velocity ofthe system.It isa necessaryconditionfor astationary pointor anextremum ofthe action.
The Hamilton's principle, which statesthat themotionor configuration ofa systemminimizes(or maximizes)its action.It isa sufficientconditionfor astationary pointor anextremum ofthe action.It isa variational principlethat canbe usedto derivethe Euler-Lagrange equation.
The Lagrange multipliers, which areasetoffactors that areusedto incorporateconstraintsintothe variational formulation.They representthe reactionforcesdueto the constraints.They canbe usedto modifythe lagrangian functionand the Euler-Lagrange equationto accountfor the constraints.
The generalized forces, Dynamics of Systems Containing Rigid Bodies
Dynamics of systems containing rigid bodies is a more complex and challenging topic than dynamics of systems of particles. Rigid bodies are bodies that do not deform or change shape under the action of forces. Rigid bodies have both translational and rotational motion, and their motion depends on their mass distribution and geometry. Rigid bodies are often encountered in engineering practice, such as machines, vehicles, structures, robots, etc.
The book extends the momentum and lagrangian formulations to systems containing rigid bodies. The book shows how to use the concepts and principles of linear and angular momentum, work and energy, and variational principles to derive and solve equations of motion for systems containing rigid bodies. The book covers topics such as:
The concept of mass moment of inertia, which is a measure of the resistance of a rigid body to rotational motion. It depends on the mass distribution and the axis of rotation of the rigid body.
The concept of parallel axis theorem, which is a formula that relates the mass moment of inertia of a rigid body about any axis to its mass moment of inertia about a parallel axis passing through its center of mass.
The concept of principal axe